Deeply convinced of the common interest of mankind in promoting the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes and in continuing efforts to extend to all States the benefits derived therefrom, and of the importance of international cooperation in this field, for which the United Nations should continue to provide a focal point,
Reaffirming the importance of international cooperation in developing the rule of law, including the relevant norms of space law and their important role in international cooperation for the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,
Recognizing that all States, in particular those with major space capabilities, should contribute actively to the goal of preventing an arms race in outer space as an essential condition for the promotion of international cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,
Aware of the need to increase the benefits of space technology and its applications and to contribute to an orderly growth of space activities favourable to the socio-economic advancement of mankind, in particular that of the people of developing countries,
Noting with satisfaction that the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, on the basis of the deliberations of its two subcommittees, had endorsed the text of the draft principles relevant to the use of nuclear power sources in outer space,1
Noting the progress achieved in the further development of peaceful space exploration and application as well as in various national and cooperative space projects, which contribute to international cooperation in this field,
3. Notes that, at its thirty-first session, the Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, in its working groups, continued its work as mandated by the General Assembly in resolution 46/45;7
4. Endorses the recommendations of the Committee that the Legal Subcommittee, at its thirty-second session, taking into account the concerns of all countries, particularly those of developing countries, should:
(b) Continue, through its working group, its consideration of matters relating to the definition and delimitation of outer space and to the character and utilization of the geostationary orbit, including consideration of ways and means to ensure the rational and equitable use of the geostationary orbit without prejudice to the role of the International Telecommunication Union;
(c) Continue, through its working group, its consideration of the legal aspects related to the application of the principle that the exploration and utilization of outer space should be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all States, taking into particular account the needs of developing countries;
5. Notes that deliberations on the question of the geostationary orbit were undertaken by the Legal Subcommittee, as reflected in its report,8 on the basis of recent proposals which might provide a new and enhanced basis for future work;
7. Notes that the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, at its twenty-ninth session, continued its work as mandated by the General Assembly in its resolution 46/45;9
8. Endorses the recommendations of the Committee that the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, at its thirtieth session, taking into account the concerns of all countries, particularly those of developing countries, should:
(ii) Examination of the physical nature and technical attributes of the geostationary orbit; examination of its utilization and applications, including, inter alia, in the field of space communications, as well as other questions relating to space communications developments, taking particular account of the needs and interests of developing countries;
(vii) The theme fixed for special attention at the 1993 session of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee: "Space-based communication: the expansion of current services and increased understanding of new systems and the services they will make possible&quo;; the Committee on Space Research and the International Astronautical Federation, in liaison with Member States, should be invited to arrange a symposium, with as wide a participation as possible, to be held during the first week of the Subcommittee's session, to complement discussions within the Subcommittee on the special theme;
(c) The United Nations should support the creation of adequate training centres at the regional level, linked, whenever possible, to institutions implementing space programmes; necessary funding for the development of such centres should be made available through financial institutions;
(d) The United Nations should organize a fellowship programme through which selected graduates or postgraduates from developing countries should get in-depth, long-term exposure to space technology or applications; it is also desirable to encourage the availability of opportunities for such exposure on other bilateral and multilateral bases outside the United Nations system;
10. Endorses the recommendation of the Committee that the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee should reconvene, at its thirtieth session, the Working Group of the Whole to Evaluate the Implementation of the Recommendations of the Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, to continue its work;
11. Also endorses the recommendations of the Working Group of the Whole of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, as endorsed by the Committee and as contained in the report of the Working Group of the Whole;11
12. Decides that, during the thirtieth session of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, the Working Group on the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space should be reconvened, and invites Member States to report to the Secretary-General on a regular basis with regard to national and international research concerning the safety of nuclear-powered satellites;
13. Endorses the United Nations Programme on Space Applications for 1993, as proposed to the Committee by the Expert on Space Applications,12 and urges all States to make voluntary contributions to this Programme in order to enhance its effectiveness;
15. Reaffirms its approval of the recommendation of the Conference regarding the establishment and strengthening of regional mechanisms of cooperation and their promotion and creation through the United Nations system;
18. Requests all organs, organizations and bodies of the United Nations system and other intergovernmental organizations working in the field of outer space or on space-related matters to cooperate in the implementation of the recommendations of the Conference;
20. Recommends that Member States might discuss, during the next sessions of the Committee under its agenda item entitled "Other matters", the possibility of holding a third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in the future;
21. Also recommends that the United Nations should actively encourage the continuation of activities initiated for International Space Year 1992 and promote broader involvement in those activities by more nations;
23. Recommends that more attention be paid to all aspects related to the protection and the preservation of the outer space environment, especially those potentially affecting the Earth's environment;
24. Considers that it is essential that Member States pay more attention to the problem of collisions of space objects, including nuclear power sources, with space debris, and other aspects of space debris, and calls for the continuation of national research on this question, for the development of improved technology for the monitoring of space debris and for the compilation and dissemination of data on space debris, and that, to the extent possible, information thereon should be provided to the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee in order to allow it to follow this area more closely;
27. Requests the Secretary-General to prepare, for the next session of the Committee, an analytical report on the role that the Committee could play in view of the decisions and recommendations of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development and invites Member States to submit their views in time for inclusion in that report;
28. Urges all States, in particular those with major space capabilities, to contribute actively to the goal of preventing an arms race in outer space as an essential condition for the promotion of international cooperation in the exploration and uses of outer space for peaceful purposes;
29. Takes note of the views expressed during the thirty-fifth session of the Committee and during the forty-seventh session of the General Assembly concerning ways and means of maintaining outer space for peaceful purposes;
30. Requests the Committee to continue to consider, as a matter of priority, ways and means of maintaining outer space for peaceful purposes and to report thereon to the General Assembly at its forty-eighth session;
32. Requests the specialized agencies and other international organizations to continue and, where appropriate, enhance their cooperation with the Committee and to provide it with progress reports on their work relating to the peaceful uses of outer space;
33. Further requests the Committee to continue its work, in accordance with the present resolution, to consider, as appropriate, new projects in outer space activities and to submit a report to the General Assembly at its forty-eighth session, including its views on which subjects should be studied in the future.
85th plenary meeting
14 December 1992
3. See Report of the Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 9-12 August 1982 (A/CONF.101/10 and Corr.1 and 2).
4. Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/47/20).
6. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (General Assembly resolution 2222 (XXI); annex); Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (General Assembly resolution 2345 (XXII); annex); Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (General Assembly resolution 2777 (XXVI); annex); Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (General Assembly resolution 3235 (XXIX); annex); Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (General Assembly resolution 34/68 ; annex).
7. Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 20 (A/47/20), sect. II.C.
9. Ibid., sect. II.B.
10. See Report of the Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 9-12 August 1982 (A/CONF.101/10 and Corr.1 and 2).
11. A/AC.105/513, annex II.
12. A/AC.105/497, sects. I and III.